History of the New York Section and the Foundation of American Urological Association (AUA)

History of the New York Section and the Foundation of American Urological Association (AUA)

Akinwunmi Carons, Michele Paoli, Robert Waldbaum The Arthur Smith Institute for Urology, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, 450 Lakeville Rd, M41, New Hyde Park, New York, United States, 11042 Corresponding address: Akinwunmi Carons MD akin.ojo.carons@gmail.com Office: (516) 734-8500 Fax: (516) 734-8537
Abbreviations AACU = American Association of Clinical Urologists AAGUS = American Association of Genitourinary Surgeons ABU = American Board of Urology ACMI = American Cystoscopic Makers, Incorporated AMA = American Medical Association AUA = American Urological Association CAPS = Congress of American Physicians and Surgeon NYAM = New York Academy of Medicine NYGUS = New York Genito-Urinary Society NYU = New York University NYUMC = New York University Medical College

Abstract

Introduction:

The goal of the paper is to give a recount on the history of the American Urological Association New York Section and to provide an update on the current state of the Section with respect to its mission, academic endeavors, memberships and future directions.

Materials and Methods:

A literature and historical archive review on the inception, evolution and the current state of the Section were queried. Materials were obtained from the AUA archive, Dr Clement Furey's review and internet search engine reviews on the History of AUA New York Section.

Results:

The AUA New York Section was conceived in 1902 by Dr Ramon Guiteras and several other founding members after disbanding the previous New York Genito-Urinary Society association. The early part of the 20th century saw tremendous innovation in the field of urology and many of these were championed by members of the AUA NY Section. The Section has several iconic awards given to outstanding persons for their works and contributions to the advancement of the Section and to the field of Urology. It currently comprises of 686 active member, and 15 urological training programs with 141 residents. The highlight events of the Section are its annual meetings, Resident's essay contest, Chief residents' debate and scheduled elections of new officers according to its bylaws.  

Conclusion:

It has been over a century since the inception of the AUA NY Section and it has gone through several changes. Its mission remains firm and resonates with it members. The state of its union is strong. The future looks brighter for its members, urological residency training and trainees and for the advancement of urologic care to patients at large.
 

How it all began:

This history the New York Section of the AUA dates back to the 17th century. New York was an emerging force in establishing medical schools and a few of the current prominent hospitals in the country. After the American revolution, the once King's College Medical School in New York City established in 1767 was reorganized and renamed Columbia University Medical School in 1784. The College of Physicians and Surgeons then formerly merged with Columbia University in 1891, but it had acted loosely as the Medical Department for Columbia University since 1860. By 1841, the New York University Medical College (NYUMC) was founded and was presided over by a phenomenal surgeon of his time, Dr Valentine Mott. The historical Bellevue Hospital acted as a site of lectures and instructions for the medical student. The American Medical Association (AMA) was established by 1846 and shared the hospital resources with NYUMC. The advancement in medicine in New York attracted many prominent urological physicians to New York, particularly Bellevue Hospital. Amongst them were: William Van Buren, John W. Gouley, Fessenden N. Otis, Edward L. Keyes Sr., Samuel Alexander, Robert W. Taylor, Tilden Brown, Eugene Fuller etc. Dr Valentine Mott was one of the founding members of New York Academy of Medicine (NYAM) in 1847. His Son-In-Law, Dr William H. Van Buren followed suit in his footsteps at the NYUMC. A new amphitheater was opened at the Bellevue Hospital on March 2nd 1847. Dr Van Buren, who at the age of 30, performed a Perineal Lithotomy on this day. This has been noted as the birth date of New York Urology. Dr William H. Van Buren became the first clinical professor of genitourinary disease at the NYU School of medicine in 1851. This is about the first of such clinical appointment in America. In addition, the first Urological ward in the country was formed in 1877 in Bellevue hospital and as such she is considered the "Mother of Urology". At the time of the founding of the New York Academy of Medicine, the pulse for many physicians to promote their works and profession was palpable. This brought about physicians coming together to form NYAM. By the turn of the century, many organizations, and sections of special interests were formed within NYAM by physicians of same specialty. Dr Van Buren later took on Dr Edward L. Keyes Sr. and Eugene Fuller from Harvard as his assistants in the practice of Urology and collaborated in publishing many notable works and urological procedures that are still being performed today, such as Suprapubic prostatectomy (1895). The birth of the first Urological Society in America was on October 16th 1886 in the office of Edward L. Keyes Sr. at 1 Park Avenue in New York City. The request to form this organization came from the Congress of American Physicians and Surgeon (CAPS) and the impetus was no such organization was in existence. They wanted to form bodies of several specialties within CAPS so that members who attend the meetings can benefit from several specialty presentations and be exposed to a variety of cases, including urology. The society was called The American Association of Genitourinary Surgeons (AAGUS). Prominent New York surgeons were present at this meeting such as Drs E.L. Keyes, F.N. Otis, P.A. Morrow, F.R. Sturgis and R.W. Taylor, F.W. Rockwell, A.T. Chabot, F.B. Greenough, Roswell Park and J.W. White. E.L Keyes was elected the president and membership was restricted to 30. In 1890, a group of bright New York Genito-Urinary surgeons came together to form the Genito-Urinary Section of the New York Academy of Medicine. A few of the founders were also members of the AAGUS. The participants were: Dr William Otis, RC Valentine, EL Keyes Sr., E Fuller, Sam Alexander, RW Taylor, Beggs and William Otis became the first chairman and Samuel Alexander the first secretary. Amongst his other contributions to Urology, Dr W. Otis is famous for devising the urethrotome used in incising urethral strictures still used today. Cystoscope was in its infant and revised state at this time and it was not until 1905 with the help of Rheinhold Wappler that a fully functional Cystoscope with working elements and an incandescent light was demonstrated by Dr F. Tilden Brown. FT Brown was one of Mount Sinai Hospital's earliest interns. This began the era of several collaborations of urologists with Mr. Wappler. He subsequently relocated and established the American Cystoscopic Makers Incorporated (ACMI) in 1908 in New York City. During this time, reorganization within the field of urology was beginning to take place. Several New York Medical schools with their respective affiliated hospitals now have urology section with an appointed Professor of Genito-Urinary Surgery. Dr Samuel Alexander at Cornell Medical College; Dr Ramon Guiteras at New York Post Graduate Hospital (1894). Dr Ramon Guiteras a native of Bristol, Rhode Island was born in 1858. He studied at Harvard for his undergraduate and medical education and graduated 1883. He was an avid boxer and often sparred at the New York Athletic Club with fellow Urologist, Eugene Fuller. By 1890, he became a Professor Surgery at the New York Post Graduate Hospital and later appointed as the Professor of Genito-Urinary Surgery in 1894. He was a prolific writer and published many articles and texts on Genito-Urinary Surgery. In 1900, Dr Guiteras and his assistant formed the New York Genito-Urinary Society (NYGUS) which later evolved to become the American Urological Association. Dr Guiteras was made the first president, Winfield Ayers, Otis Newell as vice-presidents, George Blanchard as treasurer, AD Mabie as Secretary and M Samuel Bennet as Assistant Secretary and Stenographer. Informal meetings were held every month or two at his residence or a fine restaurant in New York City. According to the first minutes of the AUA, during a meeting held on February 22, 1902 at Dr R. Guiteras' residence, the NYGUS voted to disband, sine die. The group then became the American Urological Association (AUA) by motion of W. Ayers, and seconded by C. Begg. The founding members at the meeting were Drs Ramon Guiteras (Fig 1), Winfield Ayers, Ferdinand C. Valentine (Fig 2), Terry M. Townsend, Follen Cabot, Colin L. Begg , FW Levasseur, MA Guilber. All were from New York, but within a year, several members from other states had been admitted as members. Elected officers at this meeting were Ramon Guiteras, president; William K. Otis (Fig 3), vice-president; John Van der Poel (Fig 4), treasurer; Ferdinand C. Valentine, secretary; and A.D. Mabie, assistant secretary. Ramon Guiteras later wrote about the society's inception to Frederick W. Robbins, the president of the AUA meeting in 1917 held in Chicago. In his address "AUA: a review" he quotes R Guiteras by saying, " Urology was born of the spirit - not of the wine house, but of urological science and friendship there cemented." The in no existing copy of the first constitution, but the objective of the Association was the study of male and female genitourinary system; membership was open to all physicians qualified to practice medicine and surgery in North America, South American and West Indies; and that articles be read in any modern language but published in English and Spanish. The next meeting was held on March 2, 1902 at the New York Athletic Club with more meetings in April, May, November and December 1902. The first annual convention was held at Saratoga Springs, NY on June 13, 1902. In his first presidential speech, Dr Guiteras began his talk on "Evolution of Urology", by defining Urology in Greek translation as "urine plus science". He spoke about the advances in the field of urology beginning in 1800s and attributed these advances to the development of the cystoscope, anesthesia, urinalysis, antiseptic, ureteral catheters, roentgen rays, pathogenic germs and the improved surgical and therapeutic techniques. He expressed his preference for Perineal prostatectomy instead of Suprapubic prostatectomy approach. Furthermore, he encouraged the continuous use and training in Cystolitholapaxy, instead of lithotomy for the treatment of bladder stones. The second annual convention was held in New Orleans in 1903 and the third in Atlantic City, NJ in 1904. Many of the founding members were present for this meeting (Fig 5). During the second annual convention, there was an agreement that the annual meeting will be held in conjunction with AMA annual meeting. At the third annual convention, the president Dr Guiteras, encouraged participants and members to publish their works, talks, papers and transactions of the meeting in the American Journal of Urology (Fig 6). In 1906, with the AUA was divided into five sections. Dr Ferdinand C. Valentine became the president (he was the first AUA Secretary). There were 265 active members and 35 applicants. The revision of the constitution and bylaws of the AUA was presented and discussed. In 1907, the annual meeting was first published in the Transactions of the AUA in the American Journal of Urology. This journal ceased publication in 1918. It was not until 1920 the Journal of Urology took over publishing the annual AUA meetings.

Ferdinand C. Valentine

Dr Ferdinand C. Valentine was born in 1851. He attended Medical school in St. Louis in 1876. His initial career interest was ophthalmology. He later went to Central America and became the Surgeon General to the Army of Honduras and as such, developed interest in Urology. He returned to United States and after working as a general practitioner for a few years, he moved to Europe to study urogenital disease and surgery. He returned to the United States a Professor of Genito-Urinary Surgery at the New York School of Clinical Medicine. He was a prolific writer on urological issues, spoke six languages and a skilled "urethral instrumentalist." At his time of death in 1909, he left a large sum of money from his estate to the Section of Urology at NYAM. The amount is estimated to be almost one million dollars when it was finally received and it was the largest sum left by any individual to a medical society.

Valentine Resident Essays Contest, Fellowship and Medalist Award

In 1950, the New York AUA instituted an annual resident essay contest. Likewise, the Urology Section of the NYAM instituted an essay contest in 1956. In 1959, the two contests were combined and in 1974, the meeting was named "The Ferdinand C. Valentine Urology Resident Meeting, which has continued to the present day". In 1961, the Ferdinand C. Valentine Memorial Lecture and Medal was instituted by the NYAM GU Section president Dr Ralph Veenema and its Board. This award was given to outstanding individuals for their distinguished contributions to the field of urology. Dr Charles Huggins of the Chicago Medical School and Nobel Prize winner in Medicine was chosen as the first recipient of the award. In 1964, the Valentine Research Fellowship Award was instituted for residents interested in and caring out research in the advancement of Urology. These traditions are still being performed yearly. These are the lecturers and recipients of the Ferdinand C. Valentine Medal Award:
2015 Jerry Blavias, William deGroat2014 Gerald Jordan2013 Tom Lue2012 Demetrius Bagley 2011 Alan Wein 2010 Jack McAninch 2009 Shlomo Raz 2008 Andy Novick 2007 William Catalona 2006 Carl Olsson 2005 Joseph Segura 2004 Jean deKernion 2003 Donald Coffey 2002 Lowell King, Alan Retik 2001 Patrick Walsh 2000 Daracott Vaughan Jr. 1999 Donald Skinner 1998 William Fair 1997 Emil Tanagbo 1996 Paul Peters 1995 Frank Hinman Jr. 1994 John Donohue 1993 Eugene Carlton Jr., John Grayhack, Jay Gillenwater 1992 Keith Waterhouse, Richard Turner-Warwick 1991 Thomas Stamey 1990 Kurt Amplatz, Wilfrido Castenda-Zuniga, Ralph Clayman, Robert Miller, Arthur Smith 1989 Fathollah Mostofi 1988 Joseph Kaufman1987 George Nagamatsu1986 Pablo Morales1985 William Hardy Hendren III 1984 Hugh Judge Jewett 1983 John Lattimer 1982 Willet Whitmore Jr. 1981 William Didusch 1980 Willard Goodwin 1979 Meter Melicow 1978 David Innes Williams 1977 Eugene Bricker 1976 Reed Nesbit 1975 Sven Seldinger 1974 Victor Marshall 1973 Alfred Jost 1972 Rubin Flocks 1971 Robert Hotchkiss 1970 John Harrison, David Hume John Merrill, Joseph Murray 1969 William Kolf 1968 Terence Millin 1967 Alexander Gutman 1966 Theodore McCann Davis 1965 Moses Swick 1964 Harry Goldblatt 1963 Mereditt Campbell 1962 Charles B. Huggins
 

Subsequent Years

The Creation of The American Urologist 1902-1912

The turn of the 20th century came with much changes, interests and expansion in the field of urology. The AUA New York Section historian Dr Adrien W. Zorgniotti, wrote the above article published in the New York Academy of Medicine Vol. 2 in 1976. He wrote about the early years and inception of the AUA New York Section. Much of the conveniences we currently enjoy in the practice of urology are owed to the ingenuity of Ramon Guiteras and his successors as the president of AUA. The society welcomed physicians who spent time exclusively caring and learning about surgical diseases of the urinary tract, regardless of their specialty. The only groups excluded from the society were the Venereologists, but the AAGUS welcomed these physicians with open arms. On recount of his presidential speech in 1905, Dr Guiteras said "...these men saw to it that, through the bylaws, those who practice Venereology alone would be excluded from the membership..." A.W. Zorgniotti quotes that the young AUA society "... a New York creature and in the initial years guided mainly by the New York Urologists." The annual meetings of the AUA became a well attended event with scientific exposé on major advances in urology with reverence and fellowship amongst esteemed colleagues. The first picture from the AUA convention was at Atlantic City, NJ in 1904 (Fig 5). There were 28 men present. 12 were from New York and the others were from different parts of the country. It later became a two day event with the first day being the annual meeting for AMA and the second day the AUA annual meeting. The union between the two societies was disbanded in 1910 with the vote of the AUA members. Dr Hugh Cabot's speech at the annual AUA meeting in 1911 is one of the most important speeches ever delivered by its president. He made obvious, the lack of adequate surgical urological training and the insecurities of urologists and addressed certain ineptitude in the management of urological diseases. This was the first presidential speech with an aftermath open floor discussion. The take home message was it became apparent that Urologists had to become better in doing major surgical work and to become better than General Surgeons. The call was heeded and it set the groundwork for the basis of Urological Surgical specialty. Local meetings were being held every two to three months at the NYAM or restaurants within New York City and often ran from 9pm till midnight. By 1928 - 1934, the New York Section of AUA meetings were being held annually in the fall in conjunction with neighboring branches from New England and Philadelphia. The meetings were rotated between the three cities. At the 1928 annual meeting in Boston, presided by Drs Francis E DeBois, Drs A. Chute and W. Quimby discussed "The Symptoms and Diagnosis of Urinary Lithiasis" and "The Treatment of Urinary Lithiasis" respectively. Guests returned home via private car on the Pennsylvania Railroad. At the 1932 annual meeting held at NYAM with Dr J. Sturdivant presiding, Dr Edwards Keyes Jr. delivered the eulogy for Dr Eugene Fuller, the author of "The Origin of Complete Enucleation of the Prostate in Suprapubic Prostatectomy." The closing statement by the AUA said that any bladder tumor case presented at the AUA had to conform to the classification by Cancer Registry Committee. There were 215 members and guests present.

1933 and 1973: Interesting Moments

It was not until 1933 at the annual meeting that it became a mandate that all new members of the AUA New York Section had to first become members of the AUA. This was later changed by the Section that applicants first had to be certified by the American Board of Urology (ABU), and become members of local AUA before applying to the national AUA. Joint meetings with Philadelphia and New England branches were discontinued around 1941 during World War II. New York members were asked to contribute $15 to ease the cost to the now solo Section. There were 258 members and the number of activities had decreased at the section meeting. No record of the minute was ever located. In 1947, the President of the Section Dr John K DeVries suggested establishing a Prize Essay Contest for Residents of the New York metropolitan area. Executive Committee agreed to the proposal and Drs G. Cahill and R.B. Henline drew up the rules for the contest. The rules stated that the contest would be open to any Urological resident in the NY metropolitan area. The topic should be on any urological consideration, including clinical and research works. A monetary prize will be given for each category: first, second and honorable mention. The 1948 meetings focused on postgraduate education with concerns that it ought to be a rewarding and learning experience. It was held at the Yale Club with 123 members present. Dr W. Whitmore spoke on "Testes tumors-diagnosis, staging and therapy" and Dr Bacon spoke on "Retropubic Prostatetomy" On subsequent occasions, the Annual meeting were held in conjunction with GU Section of the NYAM at the NYAM. By 1950, the minutes of the New York AUA section as documented by the secretary of the Executive Committee had marked improvement in style, information, quality and quantity. The Resident Prize Essay Contest then became a reality. Dr Fernicola of Newark City Hospital, NJ became the first winner. His work was on "Extra Urethral Confines of the Urethrographic contrast media." The contest met with great success in subsequent years and GU Section of NYAM established similar Residents Prize Essay contest. The two contests were combined three years later and became open to urology residents, interns, medical students. Dr Albert Paquin was the original Chairman of the combined Residents contest. A new category was established for young urologists in NY area who were out of residency no longer than five years. Cash prizes were given: first prize, $125; second prize, $75; and third prize, $50. Judges were selected from Medical schools outside the New York Area. It was and remains an all day affair with scholarly works presented in the mornings and early afternoons. Evening reception and award ceremony following suit at the NYAM. At the April meeting in 1953, Dr Benjamin F. Miller of the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, presented "Homologous Transplantation of the Kidney." His assisting transplant team Drs JH Harrison and David Hume spoke on the challenges encountered. This is the first documented renal transplantation attempted in the world and it was felt that a twin would offer the best chance for a successful transplantation due to similar genetic background. This concept still holds true today. At the annual fall meeting on November 20th 1957, there was a moment of silence for Dr Oswald Lowsley who had died during the year. He was prolific writer and lecturer in urology. It was as if the evening speaker had taken a journey in a time capsule with a glimpse into the future. Dr William Baker, then AUA president, spoke on "Social security and the urologists." He alluded to the increasing infringement and intercession by government in the practice of urology, and how this would increase in years to come. So true! By 1960, the AUA mandated that all AUA Sections become incorporated in order to qualify for tax free exemption status. The AUA then obtained liability insurance for all AUA officers, committees, Sectional officers and committee members. During the first meeting of the year at Yale Club on February 8th 1960, the president Dr Harold Hermann introduced Dr Reed Nesbit a Professor of surgery and Chief of Urology at the University Hospital in Michigan. Two of Dr Nesbit's staff delivered talks of the evening. Dr Cerny spoke on "The development and operation of a Dialysis unit by a Urological Service" and Dr Bruce Smith spoke on "The solution of certain problems with the diagnosis of renal hypertension." Dialysis appeared beneficial with a 50% survival in certain patients in acute renal failure, but it was labor intensive. Also, after renal revascularization surgery, there was a 72% reduction of hypertension. These were novel at the time and well received.  

Residents Prize Essay Contest

The Ferdinand C. Valentine Prize Essay Contest for Residents was held on April 7th, 1961 at the NYAM. It was a combined meeting with the GU Section of the New York Academy and New York AUA Section. Chairman for the program was Dr John K. Lattimer. 100 papers were submitted and 65 papers were presented. This was followed by a dinner, the award presentation and talks on "Retroperitoneal Fibrosis" - Frank Hamm, "New treatment of Testes Tumors" - Willet Whitmore, "Tuberculosis of the GU tract" - John Lattimer, and "Vesico-Vaginal Fistula (27 Cases)" - Victor Marshall. The Ferdinand C. Valentine Prize Essay Contest for Residents was held on April 17th, 1963 at the NYAM and the evening session at the Yale Club. It was a combined meeting with the GU Section of the New York Academy and New York AUA Section. The moderator was Dr Herbert, Brendler and judges were Dr W. Scott and the staff from the Johns Hopkins Medical School. 92 papers were submitted and 50 were presented. The stipend for the judges was $100 and each member of the Executive Committee got reimbursed $200 a year for their expense. Below are the first documented winners in their respective categories:

Clinical Research

1st Prize Andrew J McGowan Mobilization of anterior urethra
2nd Prize Frederico Ortiz-Quesda Chyluria; lymphatic-urinary fistula demonstrated by Lymphangiography
 

Laboratory Research

1st Prize Edward C Muecke The role of the cloacal membrane in extrosphy: the first successful experimental study
2nd Prize Shimon Shalit Homologous prostatic extraction on gonads and accessory sex organs
 

General Category

1st Prize Jose Celis Relocation of the juxta-vesicle ureter in correction of the vesicle ureteral reflux
2nd Prize Irving Bush History on Ancient urology
 

Clinical Research

1st Prize Amir S Girgis Perineal urethroplasty
 

Laboratory Research - General Category

1st Prize Lidia Leiter Methods of urinary diversion which preserve continence
 

AUA Ramon Guiteras Award

The first Ramon Guiteras lecture was delivered at the 1929 AUA meeting by Professor A von Lichtenberg from Berlin titled "Kidney and ureteral lesions secondary to adnexal disease." The AUA Ramon Guiteras Award with a $5000 honorarium was initiated in 1963 and it first recipient was Dr Hugh J Jewett of Johns Hopkins (Baltimore, MD). The award was made for "outstanding contributions to arts and science of urology" and it is the most prestigious award given by AUA. The recipients of the award by years, is listed below:
2015 John M Barry 2014 Peter Scardino 2013 Jean B deKernion 2012 Anthony Atala 2011 E Darracott Vaughan Jr. 2010 Ralph Clayman 2009 Jack McAninch 2008 Andrew Novicki 2007 Donald Skinner 2006 Alan Retik 2005 John P Donahue 2004 Patrick Walsh 2003 Victor Politano 2002 Earl Nation 2001 Logan Holtgrewe 2000 Emil Tanagho 1999 Jay Gillenwater 1998 William Boyce 1997 Charles Devine Jr. 1996 James Tate Mason 1995 Thomas Stamey 1994 John Grayhack 1993 Paul Peters 1992 Joseph Dowd 1991 Willard Goodwin 1990 William Valik 1989 Eugene Carlton Jr. 1988 Paul Schildt 1987 Jack Lapides 1986 Joseph Kaufman 1985 Frank Hinman Jr. 1984 Willet Whitmore Jr. 1983 William Scott 1982 Donald Jaffar 1981 Russell Scott Jr. 1980 John Lattimer 1979 Roger Barnes 1978 Justin Cordonnier 1977 Charles Hoffman 1976 Samuel Raines 1975 Victor Marshall 1974 Donald Smith 1973 Willam Wishard Jr. 1972 Harry Spence 1971 Wyland Leadbetter Jr. 1970 William Herbst Jr. 1969 Charles Higgins 1968 Rubin Flocks 1967 Reed Nesbit 1966 Charles C Huggins 1965 Hartwell Harrison 1964 Edgar Burns 1963 Hugh Jewett
In 1964, eleven companies participated in scientific and commercial exhibits during the essay meeting. In the fall of 1966 with Dr J. Lattimer presiding, the first Gold Cystoscope donated by ACMI was won by Dr Ernest Sims at the New York Section meeting. Dr Selwyn Levitt won a $50 cash prize donated by CR Bard Company. There were 331 active members and the balance in the treasury was $9,315.19. The AUA annual meeting was held in New York City in 1967. In 1969, the meeting dues were increased to $25 per member. The Executive Committee meeting was held on November 3rd 1971. At this time, the AUA had formed the American Association of Clinical Urologists (AACU) to combat the political influences on urology. The society believed that each state ought to have their own political organization to handle the relationships with Medicare and Insurance companies. Dr Perrin Snyder was appointment the Head of the Professional Relationship Committee to handle New York State issues.

The Birth of Oversea Meetings

With a resounding favor by members to have the annual fall New York Section meeting outside the country, Dr Keith Waterhouse, then Secretary, made arrangements for the meeting to be held at The Queens Elizabeth Hotel in Montreal, Canada on October 23, 1972. This was the birth of many successful annual meeting in foreign locations. The meetings had scientific sessions in the mornings; social affairs in the afternoons. The current AUA president was invited to speak on any topic of his choice. Afternoons were free and many members visited local hospitals, clinics, museums or explored the countryside Dr Jose Iglesias was unanimously elected as honorary membership into the New York Section in 1972 meeting. He worked in Cuba for years and was jailed by Fidel Castro for political reasons. It was during his jail time he designed the Continuous Flow Cystoscope. Membership to AUA changed one again in 1973. One now had to be ABU certified in order to become a member of the AUA local Section. Furthermore, membership to the AUA required a Section membership. A noncertified urologist can still be a member of a local Section but without voting privileges.  

1974 and Onwards: Interesting Moments

April 17th 1974, the GU Section of NYAM and New York AUA had a joint resident essay contest session and for the first time it was called "The Ferdinand C. Valentine Prize Essay Contest". The name of the meeting was later changed in 1983 to "The Ferdinand C. Valentine Urology Prize Essay Meeting". The meeting had 105 papers submitted, of which 65 was presented. Dr J. Iglesias donated one of this Continuous Flow Cystoscopes as a door prize. In 1974, Dr Russel Lavengood the president, appointed a committee chaired by Dr Perrin Snyder to assist in the formation of the New York State Society of Urologists. The goal of the society was to meet with Medicare and the insurance companies to help establish the reimbursement fees for the entire state of New York. Long time historian, past AUA NY Section president, Dr Francis Twinem resigned his position as the historian. He was responsible for maintaining the past records in the Archives at the NYAM. He was succeeded in the coming year by Dr Francis Beneventi. In 1977, Dr Harry Grabstald the president, formed the New York Section's Malpractice Defense Committee, chaired by Dr Keith Waterhouse to help members plagued with malpractice lawsuits. There was a suggestion by Dr Bernard Pinck, past section president to increase the Valentine prizes in 1979. First prize will be a trip to the annual overseas meeting, second prize as ACMI Continuous Flow Cystoscope, third prize was $500, fourth prize was a plaque and catheters donated by Eaton Pharmaceutical and CR Bard Company. The overseas meeting prize was discontinued after returning from the overseas meeting with a $12,000 deficit, while the other prizes were maintained. On January 4th 1980, Dr Russel Lavengood (Fig 7) proposed that the NY Section be divided into 7 areas: (1) Manhattan and Staten Island; (2) Bronx; (3) Brooklyn; (4) Queens; (5) Long Island; (6) Westchester and small sections surrounding that area; (7) Northern New Jersey. The goal of this was to have each region elect a member to serve for two years on the Executive Committee and this would bring a broader representation and generate more interests in the Section's activities. Proposal was passed unanimously by the members. Annual membership fee at this point was $100 a year. In 1986, historian Dr Lavengood, chairman of the ad hoc committee on reorganization of the New York Section's Executive Committee gave his report and recommended restructuring the seven regions and to consolidate into five districts:
District 1 Nassau-Suffolk counties
District 2 Brooklyn-Queens-Staten Island
District 3 Manhattan-Bronx
District 4 Westchester-Putnam-Rockland counties
District 5 Northern Section of New Jersey
This proposal was approved and received favorable votes from the members. Dr Clement Furey Jr. was appointed the Section's Historian in 1988 after the sudden death of the Dr Russel Lavengood, past Section president (1974-75) and long time historian (1982-88). He was to have been nominated for the presidency of AUA the upcoming year.

Chief Residents' Debate

The first Chief Residents' debate is believed to have begun in 1988. The idea and the groundwork were laid down by Dr Michael Droller. He was the Chair and program organizer for the February 10th 1988 Chief Residents' Debate. The moderator was Dr James Glenn, then President of Mount Sinai Hospital. The idea is to include a representative from each of the residency program in the section to have a 3 minutes debate on a controversial topic in urology, and followed with a 2 minutes rebuttal. This yearly event is one of the highlights of the NY AUA section. The forum has become an educational and enlightening tool for all members. The chief residents will debate on the assigned topics using data from the current literature. The time allotted is currently 4 minutes for the debate and 1 minute for the rebuttal. The last meeting was held at the NYAM on March 4th 2015.

Russel Lavengood Award

During the annual Black-tie Members-Only meeting November 15, 1989, President Albert Sutton presented President's Medal to all living past presidents and to the wives of recently deceased past presidents on behalf of their husbands. Russel W. Lavengood award was instituted as proposed by Dr Richard Macchia. The award was given to any individual who did an outstanding work for the Section. It was not necessarily given for academic achievement, nor was it given to only a physician. Below is the list of the Russel W. Lavengood Award recipients:
2014 Deepak Kapoor2013 Michael Droller2012 R. Ernest Sosa2011 Ihor Sawczuk 2010 Pramod C. Sognai 2009 Carl A. Olsson 2008 E. Darracott Vaughan 2007 Harris M. Nagler 2003 Peter Puchner 2002 Rainer Engle 2001 Robert S. Waldbaum 2000 Clement Furey Jr.1999 Pelligrino Tozzo1998 Richard J. Macchia1997 William R. Fair 1996 Robert D Wickham 1995 Bernard C. Butler 1994 Willet Whitmore 1993 George Nagamatsu 1992 Eva Sloan 1991 Thomas Mulcahy 1989 Harris Fleming
  Dr Robert S. Waldbaum became the NY Section president (1994-95). The president-elect, Dr Richard Macchia; treasurer, Dr Robert Stackpole; secretary Dr Roberto Reid; historian, Dr Clement Furey; District 1 representative, Arthur Smith; District 2, Francis Corgan; District 3, Michael Droller; District 4, Magid Eshgi; and District 5, Gerald Litzky. The representative to the AUA Board of Directors was E. Darracott Vaughan; members-at-large were Nicholas A. Romas and Carl A. Olsson. The largest overseas meeting to date was the 94th Annual meeting and the 23rd overseas meeting held at The International Hotel in Paris, France with over 400 attendees on October 12, 1996. This was a joint meeting with the French Urological Society. Amongst other interesting scientific topics, talks on the French form of socialized medicine was delivered and well received. On September 10, 1997, a joint proposal from the Executive committee of the New York AUA and New York Academy GU Section was reviewed. Both group had common interests of continuing to elevate the status of urology, to promote the studying and teaching of urology students, residents, fellows, research fellows, and to assist private urologists to deliver the best possible care to patients. In 1998, ten years after conceiving the idea of instituting the Russel Lavengood Award, Dr Richard Macchia became a recipient of the award for his achievements and contributions to the Section.

The Sections of the AUA: New York

With bylaws of the AUA in effect 1904-1907 instituted by the early founding members, the first AUA constitution divided the country into five Sections. Unfortunately, no copy of this constitution has survived. By 1907 AUA constitution formerly re-zoned the five Sections to: North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Central, South Central, and Western Section. The bylaws states that 15 or more physicians could organize a branch and appeal to AUA for recognition. Chicago was the first branch in 1904 then New York 1906. There were 19 branches by 1967 and branches were often confused with Sections of the AUA. In 1940, the AUA territories were further divided into eight sections and the total membership then was 1155. These eight Sections have fairly remained the same since 1940 with a few changes. They are: Northeastern, New England, New York, Mid-Atlantic, North Central, Southeastern, South Central and Western Section. The New York Section was the first to become chartered and to conform to the AUA bylaws. It will take another 43 years for the other sections to become chartered given the AUA's rapid growth.  

New York Influence: AUA Past Presidents

  New York has had a tremendous influence on the national AUA since its inception in 1902. The vision of the society is strengthened by its President, the Executive Committee and members at large. Out of 108 AUA presidents since its birth, there have been 16 outstanding individuals from New York who have served in that capacity. Below is a list of past AUA president who called New York home:
2013 - 2014 Pramod C. Sogani MD New York, NY
2001 - 2002 E Darracott Vaughan MD New York, NY
1989 - 1990 John H. McGovern MD New York, NY
1983 - 1984 Herbert Brendler MD New York, NY
1975 - 1976 John K. Lattimer MD New York, NY
1961 - 1962 Simon A. Beisler MD New York, NY
1952 - 1953 George F. Cahill MD New York, NY
1941 - 1942 Oswald S. Lowsley MD New York NY
1933 - 1934 Nathaniel P. Rathbun MD Brooklyn, NY
1929 - 1930 Joseph F. McCarthy MD New York NY
1921 - 1922 Henry G. Bugbee MD New York, NY
1915 - 1916 Edward L Keyes Jr. MD New York, NY
1913 - 1914 J Bentley Squire MD New York, NY
1909 - 1910 Eugene Fuller MD New York, NY
1905 - 1906 Ferdinand C. Valentine MD New York, NY
1902 - 1904 Ramon Guiteras MD New York, NY

New York Section AUA Presidents and Annual Meeting Site

All meetings prior to 1972 were held in New York. Afterwards, with the vision and push by Dr Keith Waterhouse then Secretary of the Section and Dr. Seidel, the birth of overseas meeting became a reality. Below is a list of the New York Section AUA Presidents and annual meeting sites:
2014-2015 Dr Felix Badillo - Lisbon2013-2014 Dr George Owens - Spain2012-2013 Dr Frederick Gulmi - Sicily2011-2012 Dr R. Ernest Sosa - France 2010-2011 Dr Ihor Sawczuk - Poland 2009-2010 Dr Harris M. Nagler - Alaska 2008-2009 Dr Muhammad Choudhury - Berlin 2007-2008 Dr Pramod C. Sogani - Buenos Aires 2006-2007 Dr Gopal H. Badlani - New Delhi 2005-2006 Dr Kenneth Cummings - Vienna 2004-2005 Dr Kenneth Glassberg - Mediterranean 2003-2004 Dr Nicholas Romas - Athens 2002-2003 Dr Carl Olsson - Barcelona 2001-2002 Dr Michael J. Droller - Stockholm 2000-2001 Dr Arthur D. Smith - Cape Town 1999-2000 Dr Majid Eshghi - Dublin 1998-1999 Dr Francis J. Corgan - Prague 1997-1998 Dr Robert H. Stackpole - Lisbon 1996-1997 Dr Roberto E. Reid - Paris 1995-1996 Dr Richard J. Macchia - Istanbul 1994-1995 Dr Robert S. Waldbaum - London 1993-1994 Dr John A. Frachhia - Venice, Florence 1992-1993 Dr Peter Puchner - Berlin 1991-1992 Dr Gilbert J. Wise - Scottsdale 1990-1991 Dr Robert D. Wickham - Budapest 1989-1990 Dr Albert Sutton - Lausanne 1988-1989 Dr Joseph Seebode - Amsterdam 1987-1988 Dr E. Darracott Vaughan Jr. - Vienna 1986-1987 Dr Andrew J McGowan Jr.+ - Laguna Niguel 1985-1986 Dr Elliot Leiter - Edinburgh 1984-1985 Dr John G. Keuhnelian - Athens 1983-1984 Dr Arthur N. Tessler - Hawaii 1982-1983 Dr Selwyn Z. Freed - Copenhagen/Stockholm 1981-1982 Dr Adrian W. Zorgniotti - Rome 1980-1981 Dr Myron S. Roberts - Madrid 1979-1980 Dr John H. McGovern+ - Innsbruck 1978-1979 Dr William J. Nelson - Dublin 1977-1978 Dr Pablo Morales - Monte Carlo 1976-1977 Dr Harry Grabstald - Jerusalem 1975-1976 Dr Bernard D. Pinck - Bermuda 1974-1975 Dr Russel W. Lavengood Jr. - London 1973-1974 Dr Perrin B. Synder - Puerto Rico 1972-1973 Dr Keith Waterhouse - Montreal 1971-1972 Dr Reginald F. Seigel 1970-1971 Dr Ralph J. Veenema 1969-1970 Dr Herbert Brendler+ 1968-1969 Dr George R. Nagamatsu 1967-1968 Dr Willet F. Whitmore Jr. 1966-1967 Dr John K. Lattimer+ 1965-1966 Dr Francis A. Beneventi 1964-1965 Dr Harrison C. Harlin1963-1964 Dr Arthur T. Willets1962-1963 Dr Victor F. Marshall1961-1962 Dr George A. Fiedler 1960-1961 Dr Archie L. Dean 1959-1960 Dr Harold B. Hermann 1958-1959 Dr John W. Draper 1957-1958 Dr Herbert R. Kenyon 1956-1957 Dr C Byron Blaisdell 1955-1956 Dr Simon A Beisler+ 1954-1955 Dr Ralph C. Yeaw 1953-1954 Dr Frank C. Hamm 1952-1953 Dr Charles T. Hazzard 1951-1952 Dr Robert S. Hotchkiss 1950-1951 Dr Oscar P. Schoenemann 1949-1950 Dr John N. Robinson 1948-1949 Dr Herbert M. Ill 1947-1948 Dr Francis P. Twinem 1946-1947 Dr John K deVries 1945-1946 Dr Augustus L. Harris 1944-1945 Dr George W. Fish 1943-1944 Dr William R. Delzell 1942-1943 Dr Fedor L. Senger 1941-1942 Dr John A. Taylor 1940-1941 Dr Roy B. Henline 1939-1940 Dr Meredith F. Campbell 1938-1939 Dr Thomas J. Kirwin 1937-1938 Dr George F. Hoch 1936-1937 Dr George F. Cahill+ 1935-1936 Dr Paul M. Butterfield 1934-1935 Dr Stanley R. Woodruff 1932-1934 Dr Walter H. McNeill Jr. 1931-1932 Dr J Sturdivant Read 1930-1931 Dr Howard S. Jeck 1928-1930 Dr Oswald S. Lowsley+ 1926-1928 Dr Francis E. DuBois 1925-1926 Dr Abraham Hyman 1924-1925 Dr Nathniel P. Rathbun+ 1923-1924 Dr Alexander Stevens 1922-1923 Dr Frederick W. Smith 1921-1922 Dr Colin L. Begg 1919-1921 Dr Alfred T. Osgood 1918-1919 Dr Henry G. Bugbee+ 1916-1918 Dr Victor C. Pederson 1915-1916 Dr Clarence R. O'Crowley 1913-1915 Dr Clarence G. Bandler 1911-1913 Dr J Bentley Squier+ 1910-1911 Dr Walter B. Bouner 1909-1910 Dr Terry M. Townsend 1906-1909 Dr Ramon Guiteras+
+Past President of the AUA

New York AUA Historians:

2013-present Robert S. Waldbaum
2010-2013 Gilbert Wise
2005-2010 Peter Puchner
2003-2005 Robert S. Waldbaum
1988-2003 Clement Furey Jr.
1982-1988 Russel Lavengood
1980-1982 Keith Waterhouse
1977-1980 Perrin Snyder
1976-1977 Adrian Zorgniotti
1974-1976 Frank Benoventi
1965-1974 Francis Twinem

Board Members 2014-2015

The current board members comprise of a President, President-Elect, Immediate Past-President, Secretary, Secretary-Elect, Treasurer, five district representatives, two members-at-large, a representative to the AUA Board of Directors, Historian and a Socioeconomics representative.

Current Membership 2015

  1. Active - 686
  2. Senior - 226
  3. Honorary - 47
  4. Associates - 59
  5. Affiliates - 22
  6. Candidates (residents / fellows) - 151

Mission Statement and By-law

The mission statement is to promote the highest standards of urological clinical care through education, research and in the formulation of health care policy. The mission statement and bylaw of the NY AUA Section was revised in September 2014 by the committee members consisting of Drs Louis Kavoussi, Jay Motola, George Owens, and Fred Gulmi. The By-laws covers the: name and scope of activities; membership; defined districts of the New York Section; officers and Board of Directors; Committees and representatives; dues; amendments and revisions; nomination for annual awards, distinctions or citations; and the election of the President of the AUA. New York Section now comprise of five districts defined as:
District I: Long Island (Nassau/Suffolk)
District II: Brooklyn, Staten Island, Queens
District III: Manhattan
District IV: Westchester, Rockland, Bronx
District V: New Jersey

Academics and Educations

There are fifteen academic urological residency programs in the AUA NY section. Two are from New Jersey State and thirteen from New York State. These programs have 141 residents and fellows currently in training. The residents participate in academic and scholarly works both at the section level and at the national AUA level. Activities such as the Resident's Essay Contest, Chief residents' Debate are designed for the residents to showcase their exemplary works and to improve collaboration and camaraderie amongst each other within the NY Section. The section graduates 35 chief residents each year. They either go on to pursue fellowship training or begin practicing across different parts of the country.

Upcoming events and Future Direction

The next AUA New York Section annual will be its 113th meeting and this will be held on the 6th through 12th of September 2015 in Lisbon, Portugal. The scientific program chairs will be Drs James Eastham, Victor Nitti and Hossein Sadeghi-Nejad. Several local Portuguese Urologists will be participating and this will prove to be exciting. The AUA NY Section have come a long way and gone through several stages of evolution since its inception in 1902 at Dr Guiteras' residence. The mission statement to "promote the highest standards of urological clinical care through education, research and in the formulation of health care policy" resonates with its members. On final analysis, the state of union of the AUA NY Section and its districts is the strongest it has ever been. Its future looks brighter with continuous increase in its membership and further advancements and innovation in urological technologies and health care delivery. The section aims to be the premier professional association and to advance the delivery of urologic healthcare within the geographic region.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank and acknowledge Dr Clement Furey Jr., one of the past New York Section historians for his detailed recount on the History of the New York Section of the AUA from its inception. Also, for his outstanding historical contribution to the American Urological Association Centennial History 1902 - 2002 book. Appreciation is extended the archivists and contributors to his book. We would also like to thank Tupper Stevens, AUA Archivist for her help in obtaining the pictures and substantial materials for this review. Gratitude and appreciation are extended to the prior historians and members of the New York academy of Medicine for the safe keeping of AUA records in their archives and for the use of several old pictures.

REFERENCES

  1. Zorgniotti, Adrian W. The Creation of the American Urologist 1902-1912. Bull New York Acad of Med. Mar-Apr 1976; 52(3): 282-92
  2. Zorgniotti, Adrian W. AUA Members, branches, and sections: early politics 1902-1912. Urology. Nov 1988; 32(5): 478-81
  3. Furey, Clement Jr. The History of the New York Section of the American Urological Association, Incorporated. 2002
  4. Twinem, Francis P. A history of the New York section of AUA. Urology. Apr. 1974; 3(4): 515-26
  5. Jones LW, Peters PC and Husser WC. The American Urological Association Centennial History 1902-200 Vol AUA 2002; 1-273
  6. Crane GM, Bloom DA. Ramon Guiteras: Founder of the American Urological Association, Surgeon, Sportsman, and Statesman. J Urol Aug. 201Vol 184: 447-452
  7. Moran, Michael E. Urolithiasis: A comprehensive history - Early Modern Stone Disease. Springer Oct 2013
  8. History of the AUA. Access Date: Feb. 2015. http://www.auanet.org/about/history-of-the-aua.cfm
  9. Mission; Bylaws; Programs & Awards; Meetings & Events Access Date: Feb. 2015 http://www.nyaua.com

FIGURES